But each of those changes have also eaten up valuable time and money, election officials say.

“Everybody is swamped, everybody is overwhelmed,” said Vicky Olin, a Republican commissioner in Steuben County, in the state’s Southern Tier, and an officer with the state association of election commissioners. “And every executive order we get puts us probably another two weeks behind.”

The state received $20 million in federal funds that were earmarked for election-related costs driven up by the pandemic, through the federal CARES Act, though the Cuomo administration said that money had largely been spent. Mr. Cuomo has repeatedly pleaded for federal help for the state and its localities, though negotiations on additional coronavirus-related aid is stalled in Washington.

Mr. Cuomo, a third-term Democrat, said he had offered extra staff — including National Guard troops — to all local boards, often without response.

“It’s a person-power function, staffing function — that’s the main factor in running the election for them,” Mr. Cuomo said last week. “We have personnel that we can make available, but they have to tell us what they need and they have to be organized.”

But some election officials acknowledged that they were uncertain how much this election year would cost.

“I’ll be candid: I don’t think my finance department has figured out what we spent yet,” said Kristen Z. Stavisky, the Democratic Party’s commissioner of elections in Rockland County, northwest of the city, noting the “astronomical” cost of postage of thousands of applications and postage-paid return ballots. “The CARES grant could never cover everything that we’re paying for.”

Nicholas LaLota, the G.O.P. commissioner in Suffolk County on Long Island, echoed that, estimating that the county would incur about $2 million in expenses in this year’s election, including spending some $150,000 on things like hand sanitizer and extra

Annie Johnson Benifield’s says her father served in WWII, but didn’t have the right to vote.

HOUSTON — Not being able to vote, is not ancient history, not something Annie Johnson Benifield had to read in a book, her father, a son of a former slave, was first allowed to vote when he was in his 50s.

“The past is not so long ago for me,” Johnson Benifield told KHOU 11. “Being the second generation in my family born out of slavery. My father was a first generation born out of slavery, and he lived to be 90 years old and he voted in every single election until his passing in 2004.”

Johnson Benifield shares the family stories with her government and politics students at Lone Star College-Tomball. KHOU 11 followed her around at a drive-thru voter registration site, one of many she was working as part of her League of Women Voters of Houston volunteer job. Johnson Benifield is the VP of Voter Services for the Houston chapter.

RELATED: Groups across Texas host voter registration drives amid COVID-19 pandemic

“My dad was drafted in World War II where he had no say, he had no ability to advocate for himself, to cast a ballot to select a political leader,” Johnson Benifield said. “to determine his faith and we were fighting for freedom and democracy around the world. At least that’s the avocation that that’s what was happening. But at the same time, he had no say in that process. And then as a 50 plus-year-old man, he was born in 1912, he didn’t get a chance to cast a ballot until the 1968 presidential election, in direct response to the Voting Rights Act of 1965.”

Three League of Women Voters area chapters joined forces with the Harris County Libraries